Decoding The Great Pyramid of Giza
Investigation and scientific study of the Great Pyramid in modern times began in 1637 by an astronomer at Oxford University, continued in 1798 by Napoleon's engineers, and in 1830 by an archeologist and an astronomer, later by a mathematician, and through the 1950s by astronomers and archeologists and mathematicians. Multiple volumes of results were published beginning in 1957 by the Institute of Pyramidology in Great Britain. What they found would literally make one's jaw drop. These discoveries included a great multitude of scientific, meteorological, astronomical, mathematical, historical, chronological, and Biblical truths. This pyramid is unique in that it contains a chronology of events embedded in the structure itself that forecasted/prophesied events far into the future. Building of this pyramid began in 2623 B.C., and the chronology built into it included (but not limited to) a forecast of the date of the Exodus, and Christ's birth, baptism, and crucifixion.
To view the detailed analysis of the Divine "finger pointing" by Isaiah 19: 19-20 to the Great Pyramid of Giza, please click here.
No evidence has ever been found to show that anyone was ever buried in the Great Pyramid of Giza.
Figure: Prophetic Chronograph Prophecy Time
An ancient treatise on Masonry (The Legend of the Craft) states that all sciences are founded upon one science and that science is Geometry. Few persons not conversant with geometry recognize its great usefulness of geometrical reasoning, or realize how much it enters into modern technology, especially engineering.
The Great Pyramid is, internally and externally, geometrical in conception and design. For this reason, the problem of the Great Pyramid is essentially one to be solved, not by the Egyptologist as such, but by the engineer, since it has been erected on principles easily recognized and understood by the construction engineer.
Merely exploring the structure will reveal nothing as regards to its true purpose. A knowledge of geometry and mathematics, combined with an understanding of their proper applications, is essential to a correct understanding of the Great Pyramid and its design. It is not by hieroglyphics nor by sculpture work, but by symbol, measure and angle, that the Great Pyramid of Giza, in the land of Egypt, yields its secrets.
Scientifically directly surveys have furnished the actual geometric measurements of the Pyramid. From these measurements calculated data was obtained which revealed the Great Pyramid to constitute a geometrical representation, on a vast scale, of mathematical and astronomical knowledge not to be known, again, for over 4500 years. The remarkable manner in which this knowledge is geometrically expressed, relative to certain simple mathematical formulae, surpasses in every way, any similar undertaking of man.
The unit of measure employed in the actual construction of the Great Pyramid was the Egyptian Royal Cubit. However, the linear unit predominating in the design of the Pyramid is the Sacred Cubit, which is shown on the Boss in the Ante-Chamber. A scientific examination of the Sacred Cubit found it to bear an exact relationship to the size of the planet on which we live. This Cubit is the exact 10,000 000th part of the distance from the center of the earth to the pole, or semi-axis. According to the geodetic research in the International Geophysical Year 1957-1958, the polar radius of the earth, as deduced from observations of the orbits of artificial satellites, is approximately 2949.89 miles. Divide this figure by 10,000,000; the result is 1 Sacred Cubit (25 Pyramid inches) or 25,0265 British inches.
Thus the earth's polar radius measures 10,000,000 Sacred Cubits or 250,000,000 Pyramid inches; hence the Pyramid inch is the 500,000,000th part of the earth's polar diameter.
Figure: Great Pyramid: Ancient Sacred Cubit More Accurate than Modern Meter
If this method of arriving at a measure of distance seems unusual, consider the French metre, conceived as a unit of linear measure based also upon the size of the earth. The French metre was arrived at by taking the 10,000,000th part of the so-called "quadrant of the earth" as calculated from the North Pole to the equator, along a meridian passing through Dunkirk. As the earth is not a perfect sphere, the said distance is not a true quadrant, hence it is not truly scientific to determine a unit of straight measure from such a surface. The calculations were subsequently found to be slightly in error. Thus, the Designer of the Great Pyramid long forestalled modern man in the scientific idea of having a unit of measure based on the size of the earth, and therefore knew the exact dimensions of the earth.
It is amazing to what a small extent the original perfect inch, as still preserved in the Great Pyramid, has fluctuated down through the ages. The inch as now used in Britain, after all these long centuries, only deviates from the original scientific standard by approximately a thousandth part of an inch. The USA inch, differing insignificantly from the British inch, may be regarded as being practically identical. As we go back into history, we find that the British inch deviated even less from the original true scientific inch of the Great Pyramid, and it is not unlikely that it was derived from it.
It is worthy of special note that the entire geometric structure of the Great Pyramid is designed on the basis of p (pi), 3.14159, the mathematical ratio upon which the whole physical universe is designed, and the value of y, 365.242, the number of days in Earth's solar year, (the time interval in days between two successive vernal equinoxes in the earth's journey around the sun).
In mathematics, p (sixteenth letter of the Greek alphabet) is the ratio between the circumference of a circle and its diameter (the straight line through its center). That is to say, the circumference of any size circle is always 3.14159 times its diameter. This sign has been adopted because of the fact that the ratio in question has never been ascertained to its finality, although of course, it has been calculated to an exceedingly high degree of precision, namely, to over 5,000 decimal places (to 15 places of decimals it is 3.141592653589793).
The amazing fact that this geometric ratio p , which pervades the whole universe, from the vast solar systems to the tiniest atoms, also pervades the Great Pyramid, was first revealed by the angle of the slope of the Pyramid's sides. This angle results in the Pyramid's vertical height bearing the same ratio to the perimeter of its base that the radius of a circle bears to the circumference. See the following diagram.
Figure: Great Pyramid: Ancient Sacred Cubit More Accurate than Modern Meter
In other words, if the height of the Pyramid to its apex be taken as the radius of a circle, the distance around the Pyramid is found to be exactly equal to the circumference of that circle. The required angle of the slope of the Pyramid's sides to produce this result is consequently known as the pyramidic p angle and is 51° 51' 14.3". No other pyramid in the world is built at this angle.
Although the squaring of a circle is an insoluble problem, if we use the incommensurable number of p, the Pyramid's design, for all practical purposes, this accomplishes the squaring of the circle.
Nearly all the dimensions of the interior (and the architect's design of the exterior) are expressible in terms of the length of the solar year. The square base circuit of the Pyramid equals 36,524.2350 inches.
The floor of the King's Chamber is the 35th course of masonry (50 inches in thickness which is thicker than those above or below it. This course extends, from its outside edge to the center vertical line, a distance of 3,652.423 inches. It is also 1162.6 inches above the base, and at this height its perimeter measures 89 times 3652.42 inches; so that a rectangle is defined as 3652.4 inches by 1162.6 inches. This rectangle defines the Ancient Egyptian unit of land area known as an "Aroura."
The measurements of the interior chambers reveal the length of the Ante-Chamber to be 116.26025 inches. Multiplying that figure by 25 (the Sacred Cubit) and again by p , equals the base side lengthy of the Pyramid. The Ante-Chamber length, multiplied by p , alone, equals 365.2423 inches. The distance from the exact center of the Ante-Chamber to the south wall of the King's Chamber is also 365.24235 inches.
The Geometric measurements can be seen, in all cases, as simple geometrical functions of the year-circle, the latter being a circle whose circumference, in Pyramid inches, is 100 times the number of days in the solar year.
The form, arrangement and detail of the Pyramid's exterior, and of its interior passages and chambers, can therefore be built up entirely from the geometry of the year-circle. This fact implies the possession of a knowledge of mathematics, geometry and astronomy, combined with the ability to express them in structural form, far in advance of contemporary knowledge of that time.
In the design of the Pyramid is found a unique geometrical symbolism so profound as to transcend anything that human ingenuity might devise. (for more details refer to Pyramidology Book No. 1, The Elements of Pyramidology, by Adam Rutherford).
Ancient Egypt seems to possess, to a remarkable degree, an advanced knowledge of mathematics and kindred sciences, but they were never able to duplicate the proportionate mathematic system of numbers found in the design of the Great Pyramid.
Having been shown how to build the ideal pyramid, and with the perfect model before them, they could copy it externally. However, all subsequent pyramids show a steadily deteriorating standard of construction. An example of the symmetry of mathematical proportions in the Great Pyramid is found in the measurements of the King's Chamber and Ante-Chamber. Their dimensions show:
The pyramid's Sacred Cubit itself is comprised of 25 inches (5 times 5 inches) and this inch is the 500,000,000th part of the Earth's axis of rotation.
Although an examination shows that the Pyramid numerics are geometric, there is one arithmetical number that is prominent in the pyramid, and that number is 5. The number 5, and multiples, powers and geometrical proportions of it runs through the Great Pyramid and its measure references. The floor of the Queen's Chamber is 5 times 5 courses of masonry from the base upwards and its measures all answer to a standard of 5 times 5 inches. The King's Chamber floor is 10 times 5 courses from the base and its walls are composed of 20 times 5 stones, arranged in 5 horizontal courses. The Pyramid itself has 5 corners (four at the base and one at the apex), 5 sides, four equal triangular sides and the square under-side on which it stands. The name pyramid comes from the Coptic word "pyr" that means division and the word "met" that means ten, suggesting the number 5 (i.e. dividing 10).
Periods of 5 years are the integral units with which the whole structure of prophetic chronology is built up in the Bible. The prophetic chronological numbers 5, 10, 15, 40, 50, 65, 70, 100, 120, 360, 390, 400, 490, 1000, 1260, 1290, 1335, 2300, and the "Seven Times" prophecy (2520 years) are all multiples of 5.
The number 5 symbolizes "Grace" (The number 5 is the designation of the 5th letter in the Hebrew alphabet, "He" (in English, pronounced "hay") -- see also Abram and Sarai found Grace with the Lord and why their names were changed by the Lord). Multiples of 5 were also the dimensions of Noah's Ark, the Wilderness Tabernacle and Solomon's Temple.
Why Was It Built?
It is logical to conclude from the evidence presented that the Great Pyramid of Giza was built under Divine Inspiration. This fact in itself proves that God, in His infinite wisdom, thought it necessary for our instruction. It is now up to man to make use of the knowledge it contains.
We have the suggestion in Isaiah 19:19-20 that the Pyramid is a witness. One might ask, "We have the Bible, does God need another witness?" The answer "yes" would be consistent with the Bible; that the evidence of "two witnesses" shall establish a matter. Also the need for a second witness is shown by the fact that we have had the evidence of the Bible all through the ages, which, for those who can believe it, is God's infallible Word. But, our belief in this fundamental fact has not been very strong. The critic and the modernist have not found it difficult to undermine the faith of the great masses, of our time, in the reliability of the Bible record.
An analysis of the Great Pyramid suggests the following answers to the question; why was it built?
First, to convey new proof to men in the present age, in spite of, and yet by means of, modern science, as to the existence of the personal God of Scripture. We live in a skeptical as well as in a scientific age. In religion and in science mankind embraces rationalism and unfaith. Humanity has become boastful of its intellectual power, and proudly aiming to be "as "god," it has become thoroughly materialistic. God seemingly anticipated that this age would lapse into agnosticism and prepared for it. This stone witness was designed to corroborate His Revelation. That the Pyramid was designed for this age is evide3nt by the fact that its revelation did not come to light centuries ago.
Second, to reaffirm the prophecies of the Old Testament Scriptures which teach that of the seed of the woman, without the man, a Divine Savior and Redeemer was to arise and appear among men. That was an actual historical event and took place at a definite preordained date.
Third, to proclaim Jesus Christ as the Savior of man. "Did you never read in the Scriptures, The Stone which the builders rejected, the same is become the head of the corner: this is the Lord's doing, and it is marvelous in our eyes" (Matthew 21:42). "Jesus Christ Himself being the chief corner stone; in whom all the building fitly framed together unto an holy temple in the Lord: in whom ye also are builded together for an habitation of God through the Spirit" (Ephesians 2:20-22). Christ is referred to in these passages as the "Chief Corner Stone." He is the Stone which the builders rejected, and is yet to become "the head of the corner," that is the head of that pyramid [meaning the capstone, or top, of the pyramid] representing His Kingdom here upon earth, which kingdom is now imminent.
Fourth, to give added evidence of His second coming, when He shall descend as the Lord from Heaven, with the view of reigning over all mankind, in one all just, beneficent omnipotent rule. This reign likewise is shown to be historical and to commence on a definite prearranged date.
[Commentary: It is interesting to note that some Bible scholars believe that the Psalms prophetically correspond to the years beginning at 1900. If that happens to be true, then Psalms 118 corresponds to the year 2018. Interesting in any case.]
God's Stone Witness, The Great Pyramid designed by the Divine Architect in the dim past, today stands decoded. Within its structure lie the architectural drawings of God's great plan for our Planet. Now, at the time appointed, it witnesses and proclaims the now imminent Divine judgments and the glory to follow.
The Great Pyramid, the first and greatest of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, is still the greatest Wonder of the World.
Many features of the Great Pyramid exhibit design on the part of the Architect to embody relative scientific time and distance measurements in parts of the structure where they could not be overlooked. A few will be mentioned here, but only in briefest detail:
1). The sun's distance from the earth: For over 2,500 years man has struggled to solve this problem. The Greeks in 500 B.C. judged the distance to be about ten miles, later guessing it to be more like 2,000 miles. In later centuries man estimated it farther and farther away, until in the 16th century it had increased to 36,000,000 miles. The latest figures of modern astronomy give 92,900,000 miles as the sun's mean distance from the earth. As there was absolutely no way of calculating this until recently, scientists were astounded to discover that built into the Great Pyramid's base plans was a figure approximating 93,000,000 miles.
2). The mean density of the earth: The true mean density or specific gravity of the earth has also been an age-old problem. An average of prominent tests has placed it at 5.672 times the weight of water at 68 degrees Fahrenheit. The Pyramid places it at 5.7, a figure closely approximating the average estimates.
3). The weight of the earth: Knowing the density of the earth enabled physicists to ascertain its weight to be approximately 5,300,000,000,000,000,000,000 tons (in USA tons, about six billion trillion). The earth's weight and the weight of the Pyramid were found to be proportionately related to one another. The Pyramid's weight of approximately 5,300,000 tons has been noted to be 1,000,000,000,000,000 (USA one thousand trillionth) the weight of the earth. It is not unreasonable to assume that the Architect used this proportion to indicate the weight of the earth.
4). Volume of the earth's crust above mean sea-level; The vast amount of surveying necessary to determine the average height of all the land on earth would have been an impossible task even a few hundred years ago. With the advent of aerial photography and the accumulation of data from continuing geological surveys, together with modern computers, an estimate is now given as approximately 455 feet. The top of the Pyramid, as the builders left it unfinished, is fully 454 1/2 feet.
5). Mean ocean level of the earth: The mean ocean level was found to approximate 193 feet 7 inches below the baseline of the Great Pyramid. Again, modern computers and the findings of modern oceanography were required to ascertain this figure. And again the design of the Great Pyramid foretold this fact. It was found that taking twice the diameter (1,162.6") of a circle having a circumference of 3,652.42" (a circle again related to the solar year and base circuit of the Pyramid) gave a result of 2325.2" or just slightly over 193 feet 7 inches. This ancient wonder in architecture based upon the geometry of the year cycle is shown to be in harmony with the earth's design.
6). Mean temperature of the earth: As the Great Pyramid stands on the line which equally divides the surface of the northern hemisphere, there is a relationship between its climate and the mean temperature of all the earth's surface. This temperature is about 68 degrees Fahrenheit. In the Pyramid this temperature is maintained permanently and unvaryingly in the King's Chamber. Two air channels, when cleaned of sand, were found to keep this chamber at the normal of mean temperature, which temperature is exactly one fifth of the distance between the freezing and boiling points of water. Scientists say that 68 degrees Fahrenheit is the ideal temperature for the existence of man.
7). Rotundity of the earth: The rotundity, or curvature, of the earth was found by surveying the side baseline of the Pyramid. Due to the hollowed-in core masonry (35.76 inches on each side) a curved line was produced. Computations were made to ascertain how long the radius would be that would produce a circle containing that curve. The resulting answer was that the radius would bew approximately half the diameter of the earth.
8). Golden Rule of Architecture: The Great Pyramid confirms perfectly to the recognized laws of harmony and beauty. The Egyptians, Cretans, and Greeks all knew about the Golden Rule of Architecture, also called the "Golden Number." Such architectural masterpieces as the Parthenon on the Acropolis, at Athens, conformed to it, but not with the high degree of mathematical precision to be found in the Pyramid built over 2,000 years earlier. This "Golden Number," when worked out, turns out to be the cosine of the p angle of the Great Pyramid, expressed as correct to three decimal places, namely, 0.618; in other words, the ratio that the distance from the center of the Pyramid's base out to each of the four sides bears to the oblique height of the Pyramid's faces, is precisely the Architect's Golden Number, correct to three decimal places.
Figure: Construction of the Great Pyramid's Base
Who Was The Builder?
Although the Pharaoh in whose reign the Great Pyramid was built, was Khufu (Cheops), second king of the Fourth Egyptian Dynasty, all the evidence supports the record of Herodotus that "strangers to Egypt" supervised the building of the Great Pyramid. Herodotus, who has been called "The Father of History," wrote that Cheops reigned 50 years, and that his brother Cephren, who succeeded to the kingdom, reigned 56 years, Thus, he adds, "106 years are reckoned, during which the Egyptians suffered all kinds of calamities; and for this length of time the temples were closed and never opened." Manetho, an Egyptian priest, explains that the temples were closed during the time of the Shepherd Kings (Cory's Ancient Fragments, pg. 68). He writes, "...there came up from the East, in a strange manner, men of the ignoble race, who had the confidence to invade our country, and easily subdued it by their power, without a battle. All this nation," continues Manetho, "was styled Hycsos, the Shepherd Kings. The first syllable, "Hyc", according to the sacred dialect denoted a king, and the "sos" signifies a shepherd according to the vulgar tongue; and of these is compounded the term Hycsos. Some say they were Arabians." Archbishop Ussher, the noted Church historian, in his chronology, refers to the migration of the Shepherd Kings from Arabia into Egypt. Upon completion of the Great Pyramid, ancient writings of the historians say that the foreign people withdrew and their departure was the cause of great rejoicing among the Egyptians. Bible chronology and findings of archaeology have established the date of the start of the building of the Great Pyramid at 2623 B.C. This has caused some Egyptologists to dispute the Hyksos theory since modern archaeologists have labeled a much later migration into Egypt as Hyksos, and assigned a period (1800-1500 B.C.) as their domination of parts of Egypt. Herodotus states that Cheops never used the Great Pyramid as a tomb, but was buried elsewhere, namely "in a subterranean region on an island there surrounded by the waters of the Nile." This is confirmed by the historian Diodorus Siculus who says Cheops was buried "in an obscure place." An additional archaeological confirmation has been discovered in an inscription on a scarab found by the Egyptologist Abdul Moneim Abu Bakr which speaks of the "Southern Tomb of Khufu." The Southern Tomb is obviously not a pyramid, and a pyramid would not conform to Diodorus' description of "an obscure place."
Who Was The Architect?
The Great Pyramid, which has stood at the border of the great Sahara Desert as a silent witness for more than 4,000 years, now speaks in modern scientific terms. Erected at a time when humanity had more crude ideas of this universe and even of our own earth, this "witness" could not be understood before this present scientific age.
The perfect accuracy of all the various geodetic and astronomical statistics which man was unable to ascertain until modern times, after the development of trigonometrical knowledge and the invention of modern appliances, is evidence of Divine Revelation. Regardless of who is found to have supervised its construction, the Architect of the Great Pyramid stands revealed as none other than Almighty God, the Creator of the Universe.
Notwithstanding the fact that no nation of antiquity on earth possessed the knowledge revealed by the design of the Great Pyramid or understood it, some may reject its Divine Inspiration.
God, seemingly, anticipated man's need for additional evidential value of the Pyramid's Divine testimony and gave a line of proof which cannot be anticipated or counterfeited. God appointed the test, which we are to apply, in Isaiah 46:9-10: "I am God, and there is none like Me, declaring the end from the beginning." If it can be shown that the design of the Great Pyramid embodies a prophetic chronology, then we have the very evidence which God Himself has declared shall be proof that the design is from Him.
A suggestion for looking for this prophetic message in the Great Pyramid was revealed in the translation of the ancient Arabic writing , the Akbar Ezzeman m.S., which states that the Great Pyramid contains "the wisdom and acquirements in the different arts and sciences...the sciences of arithmetic and geometry, that they might remain as records for the benefit of those who could afterwards comprehend them...the positions of the stars and their cycles; together with the history and chronicle of the time past and of that which is to come."
The factual evidence that the Great Pyramid contains a prophetic chronology can be demonstrated from the actual passage lengths, lengths being proportionate to the respective ages which they represent.
This remarkable discovery was made possible by a study of the geometric circle upon which the Great Pyramid is designed, the year circle, sometimes referred to as the "Enoch Circle." This circle, found by drawing a circle whose diameter equals the length of the Ante-Chamber in the Pyramid was discovered to have a circumference of 365.242 Pyramid inches.
Not only was this the exact number of days of our solar year, it was also the number of years expressed in decimals, that Enoch lived on earth, that is, 365 years, 88 days, 9 hours. Thus, inches may be expressed in terms of years.
The origin of the scale of the Biblical chronological prophecy, 1 day = 1 year, and that of the Great Pyramid's chronograph, 1 inch = 1 year, can thus both be traced back to the Enoch Circle, as can the Sacred Cubit itself.
So much of the Pyramid's chronological prophecy has now been realized in history that the scale 1 inch = 1 year has been incontrovertibly proven.
The most important messages are really embedded within the way the Great Pyramid was built itself (even dimensions being multiples of 5 is significant.....the number 5 is "Grace").....it is a testament to the Lord and with its built-in timeline it prophesized/forecasted the exact time of birth, baptism and crucifixion of Christ as well as other events. That said....there is only one place where hieroglyphics are found.... In four of the five shallow relieving spaces over the King's Chamber roof can be seen the only original hieroglyphics to be found anywhere in the Pyramid. None of these hieroglyphics, however, are inscribed in the stone itself but are written in red paint, being quarry marks by the ancient builders. Their importance lies in the fact that they reveal the Great Pyramid was built during the reign of Khufu and that its erection had reached the stage of constructing these "chambers" in the 17th year of his reign
Situated ten miles to the southwest of Cairo, the capital of Egypt, the Great Pyramid stands on the northern edge of the Giza (Gizeh) Plateau, 198 feet above sea level, in the eastern extremity of the Libyan section of the Great Sahara Desert. Gizeh is an Arabic word for the edge or border. Thus, the "Great Pyramid of Giza" means the "Great Pyramid of the Border" in English.
The Great Pyramid was placed in the exact center of all the land area of the world. Lines drawn through the north-south and east-west axis of the Pyramid divide equally the earth's terrain. The north-south axis (30° 9' meridian east of Greenwich) is the longest land meridian, and the east-west axis (29° 58' 51" north), the longest land parallel.
Figure: Geographical Location of the Great Pyramid: Exact Center of the World
That the Architect knew where to find the poles of the earth is evidenced by the high degree of accuracy in orienting the building true north. Modern man's effort, the Paris Observatory, is six minutes of a degree off true north. The Great Pyramid today is only off three minutes and that after 4200 years, due mainly to subsidence.
Such near perfect orientation is exceedingly hard to secure, even with modern astronomical equipment, and seemingly impossible without it. If the knowledge of the magnetic needle was known it would have been of little value,. It points to the magnetic north, not to the true north. The celestial pole is a point, usually a star, through which the polar axis of the earth would pass were it projected to the star sphere.
Lines produced from the two diagonals of the Pyramid, to the northwest and northeast, enclose the Nile Delta; thus embracing the fan-shaped country of Lower Egypt.
Figure: Great Pyramid: At the Center and the Border
The southern extremity, being the northernmost edge of the Giza plateau where the Great Pyramid stands looking over the fan-shaped sector of Egypt, was in ancient times at the boundary where the cultivated land touched the desert. It was this unusual location that first suggested the Great Pyramid was the monument spoken of in the scriptures by Isaiah the prophet in Isaiah 19:19-20 (see here).
Since the full official name of the Pyramid, the Great Pyramid of Giza, means, in English, the Great Pyramid of the Border, the answer to the apparently contradictory definition of Isaiah is found in the Great Pyramid. The only spot on the face of the earth that completely answers this description, both geometrically and geographically, is the precise place where the Great Pyramid actually stands.
Figure: Great Pyramid: Map Showing Position
The Great Pyramid is the largest building (not tallest) in the world and covers slightly over 13 acres. It contains nearly 90,000,000 cubic feet of masonry, enough to build about 30 Empire State buildings.
With the exception of the comparatively small space occupied by the passages and chambers, the Great Pyramid is a solid mass of masonry having a huge square base and four tapering sides that rise to a small platform at the apex. The corners of the base are marked by socket stones sunk into the solid rock.
The original side length is 755¾ feet and the height up to the top, as the builders left it unfinished, is 454½ feet. The height as planned by the builders and as evidenced from the Architect's original design is 485 feet, equal to a 48-story modern skyscraper.
The top piece, or capstone, was never set, having been rejected by the builders. It should be pointed out that the capstone (Head Stone) is also the chief cornerstone, since all the four corners of the building converge in that one stone at the top. Thus it alone, of all the stones in the structure, is the only one that is over all the four corners.
Therefore, it is interesting to note the following scriptures. (also section "Why Was It Built?" on this page)
Figure: Great Pyramid Casing Outline & Passages and Chambers Cutaway View
In its original state, shining in the sun, and so reflecting its rays, the Great Pyramid was supposed to be visible from the moon as a brilliant star on earth. This phenomenon was caused by the smooth highly polished limestone blocks of which the Pyramid was originally covered. These blocks, called casing stones, covered the four sides. Each side having an area of five and one-quarter acres, acted as gigantic mirrors, reflecting great beams of light that could be seen for many miles around.
The great earthquake of the 13th century A.D. shook the structure, cracking its face and dislodging some of the casing stones. These loose stones gave an idea to builders in the nearby cities. They began to use the Pyramid as a quarry, with the result that in a few centuries all but a few casing stones, hidden by sand, were stripped from the face, leaving the core masonry as we see it today, exposed to erosion by the elements.
The core masonry is composed largely of coarse limestone (nummulitic), mostly from the Giza Plateau itself, on which the Pyramid is built. The number of these yellow limestone blocks was estimated at about 2,300,000 by Sir Flinders Petrie, Egyptologist. They average approximately two and one-half tons each, but many are considerably heavier.
The few casing stones found "in situ" by Colonel Howard Vyse, Egyptologist, in 1837 made it possible to determine the original baseline of the structure and also the exact angle of its sloping sides. The casing stones consist of dense, white, marble-like limestone and exhibit an amount of accuracy in fitting that equals the most modern optician's work. The joints, with an area of some 35 square feet each, are not thicker than aluminum foil; yet they include between the polished surfaces an extraordinarily thin film of white cement.
Petrie in his account of these stones records, "The mean thickness of the joints is one-fiftieth part of an inch; and the mean variation of the cutting of the stone from a straight line, and from the true square, is but one-hundredth part of an inch in the length of 75 inches up the face." That they were able to maintain these tolerances despite the area and the weight of the stone to be moved—some 16 to 20 tons each— is seemingly almost impossible.
This feat was duplicated in all the casing stones, which were estimated to have numbered approximately 144,000. They were brought from over nine miles and across the Nile River.
Col. Vyse, speaking of the cement says, "...such is the tenacity of this cement....that a fragment of a stone that has been destroyed remains firmly fixed in its original alignment, notwithstanding the lapse of time and the violence to which it has been exposed." Modern chemists have analyzed this cement but have been unable to compound one of such fineness and tenacity as that exhibited in the Great Pyramid.
Today, the Pyramid, at a distance, looks like a great rock pile. Nearer at hand, it is seen that the stones, composing the structure, which are roughly cut, are laid in even course, one upon another. These courses form a series of gigantic steps, sloping back from the base on all four sides, to a level platform at the top.
The base circuit of the Great Pyramid contains a great wonder. As our earth has three separate lengths of years: (1) the solar tropical year, (2) the sidereal year, and (3) the anomalistic year, so were the baselines and walls of this Pyramid constructed, with three different lengths of circumferences.
The measurements designating the three astronomical years were found in the hollowed-in core masonry on the faces of the Pyramid. Hidden by the original straight planes of the exterior casing stones of the pyramid, they would never have been revealed except for the removal of the casing stones. These different cycles have to do with the earth and its relation to both the stars and the sun.
The earth rotates on a plane inclined to the ecliptic. This motion from west to east every 24 hours gives us day and night and occurs at the rate of 1,000 miles per hour at the Equator. While spinning like a top, the earth is also racing in its orbit around the sun anti-clockwise at the much higher rate of speed of 1,000 miles per minutes. The tilt in the earth's axis causes the four seasons. The solar year is the period in which the sun appears to pass over the earth 365.24235 times or days between the vernal equinoxes.
The sideral year is the interval between the earth's position at any time in the year, in relation to the fixed stars, and its return to the earth 365.25636 times during the circuit. This difference of about 20 minutes is due to the earth's slow second rotation clockwise, thus causing the solar tropical year to be shorter.
The anomalistic year is the interval between successive annual returns of the earth to the point -- defined as the perihelion -- in its orbit nearest the sun (Jan 2-3). This requires 365.25986 days, or about five minutes longer than the sideral year, due to the motion of the earth's orbit.
Another very important movement related to astronomy is the great cycle of time which is called the precession of the equinoxes. It is the time interval in which the earth's pole makes one complete circuit around the pole of the precession, an effect connected mainly with the gradual change of the direction of the earth's axis of rotation. This period of time varies, being greater or less, depending on from what stage of its movement it is calculated. Modern science gives the cycle as approximately 25,800 years. It is noted that the sum of the two diagonals of the Pyramid's full designated base (12,913.27 pyramid inches) x 2 = 25,826.54, a figure considered by some scholars to represent the precessional cycle.
There are other remarkable examples of interlocking mathematical solar distances found in the design of the pyramid, demonstrating the Architect to have preceded modern astronomers by over 4000 years.
With regard to its astronomical position, it seems the builders intended to place the Pyramid as close as possible in latitude 30 degrees -- that latitude where the true pole of the heavens is one-third of the way from the horizon to the point overhead (the zenith), and where the noon sun at true spring or autumn (when the sun rises almost exactly in the east, and sets almost exactly in the west) is two-thirds of the way from the horizon to the point overhead. Star observations, made from this position, would simplify many problems in the geometrical construction of the pyramid.
That the Great Pyramid was constructed according to astronomical observations of great accuracy is beyond doubt. And to achieve such exactness without modern scientific instruments is, seemingly unbelievable.
The alignment of the Pyramid can be determined from a sighting of the Pole Star. This sighting could be accomplished by boring a slanting passage, in the solid rock, positioned so as to point to the Pole Star when due north. Such a boring exists beneath the base of the pyramid, running some 350 feet through the solid rock (the lower portion of the Descending Passage). This passage is found to be in exact alignment with the true north. In response to a question if the North Star ever shone directly down the Descending Passage, Sir John Herschel, the famous astronomer Royal of England, ascertained in 1840 that only in the 22nd century B.C. did the then North Star or Pole Star, known as Draconis (Dragon Star), so shine. No other Pole Star in history has ever been in that exact position.
Sir John also found that at the very same time, the much admired little stellar cluster, the Pleiades or "Seven Sisters," in the constellation of Taurus (the Bull), was in alignment with the Scored Lines in the Descending Passage. "Canst thou bind the sweet influences of Pleiades, or loose the bands of Orion?" (Job 38:31). "Seek him that maketh the seven Stars and Orion. Alcyone is the principal star of the cluster is classified as Tarui by astronomers. The date at which the Dragon Star and the Pleiades were in those precise positions relative to the Pyramid was the vernal equinox of the year 2141 B.C. This particular year is singled out by the pyramid as the year of reference in respect to chronological measurements. Therefore, the Great Pyramid of Giza's entire prophetic chronograph is astronomically fixed,
Measurements in inches, backward or forward from the Scored Lines, represent the corresponding number of years before or after that astronomically fixed date. To test the accuracy of this starting date was relatively simple. The date, being so far back in history, allows ample testing against known recorded historical events. Putting it to the actual test consisted of measuring the passages and chambers up and down from the Scored Lines, counting one year for each inch. The pyramid is not made of elastic, but of rigid stone, so that measurements cannot be stretched nor shortened. We can only take the dimensions of the passages, just as they were constructed by the ancient builders, and let the results take care of themselves.
The distance measuring back up the Descending Passage from the Scored Lines is 482 pyramid inches, representing 482 years. Counting 482 years back from the datum line of 2141 B.C. brings us to the year 2623 B.C. This was the year that work on the construction of the Great Pyramid began.
As the passages of the pyramid's interior symbolized ages which were then future, this date for the entrance to the pyramid was most appropriate. Measuring 688 inches beyond the Scored Lines down the Descending Passage to an aperture appearing in the roof, marks the entrance to the Ascending Passage. Progressing 688 years from 2141 B.C. gives the date of 1453 B.C. This was the date of the Exodus of the Israelites from Egypt and their receiving the law through Moses on Mt. Sinai.
The time of the first Passover (just before leaving Egypt) to the crucifixion of Jesus Christ is commonly referred to as the "Dispensation of the Law" period, ending with Jesus being the first man able to keep the law perfectly, he fulfilled it, thus ending that dispensation. This period of time has been considered by most Bible chronologists as being 1485 years. As the date for the Exodus was 1453 B.C. and that for the Crucifixion was 33 A.D., the interval between them is an inflexible 1485 years.
Measuring up the Ascending Passage at the given scale of an inch to a year, we find the length is 1485 inches and therefore the end of the passage marks precisely 33 A.D. (spring). Note that the rule for determining the A.D. date is to deduct the figures of the B.C. date from the total period and add 1, thus 1485 - 1453 + 1 = 33 A.D, because there is no zero year.
.......more to come
The Great Pyramid's chronological representation depends upon the angle of the slope of the Passage System. This angle (26 degrees 18 minutes 9.7 seconds) is called the "Christ Angle" and forms the "Christ Triangle (see figure below).
This angle of slope, when taken as a "rhumb line" (not a great circle arc) bearing north of true east, describes, from the Great Pyramid, a direct route that passes successively over Israel's crossing of the Red Sea (sea of reeds), through Bethleham, and over Israel's crossing of the Jordan. The two crossings define that beginning and ending of the children of Israel's "wanderings," after coming out of Egypt. (see figure below).
Figure: Christ Triangle in Pyramid Overlay With Map
The distance from the Great Pyramid to Bethlehem, along the great circle arc, is 2139 Pyramid furlongs (1 Pyramid furlong = 8000 Pyramid inches). If we start from the Pyramids astronomically fixed datum year 2141 B.C. and apply the scale of a furlong to a year, we obtain not only the place where Jesus was born, Bethlehem, but also the exact time when He was born, considering 2139 years after 2141 B.C. marks the date, 2 B.C.
A confirmation of the chronology of the "Christ Triangle" can be found in the Book of Daniel of the Bible which not only solves the problem of the "70th week of Daniel" (past or future) but identifies the true Messiah.
In the Book of Daniel, written over 500 years before Jesus came to Earth, it was foretold in Chapter 9: 24-27:
All of the above enumerated events, given in the prophecy, were due to be accomplished by the close of the 70 "weeks." God has His own scale for chronological prophecies and this is stated in Ezekiel 4: 6, "I have appointed thee each day for a year." The scale is 1 day to a year. This scale is applicable throughout the Bible. Seventy weeks would be (70 x 7) 490 prophetic days, equal to 490 years. The following tabulation shows these prophecies and their fulfillments.
To find the time of Christ's death and resurrection, as foretold in Daniel's prophecy, we must therefore ascertain the beginning of the 70 "weeks" and count 490 years from that date. Verse 25 gives the beginning as the "going forth of the commandment to restore and to build Jerusalem," which would be the SECOND return of the Israelites from Babylonian Captivity. The first was in the days of Cyrus, when some returned to rebuild the Temple; the second, in the days of Ezra and Nehemiah, when another contingent returned to restore the city and the walls.
Thus, Ezra received the commandment to set out for Jerusalem in the month of Nisan, of Artaxerxes' 7th year (hence Nisan 458 B.C.). He arrived, in Jerusalem, four months later, whether we count by the imperial and general Nisan-to-Nisan accession year reckoning Artaxerxes' reign or by the unusual Tishri-to-Tishri non-accession year system (adopted in the Book of Nehemiah). Nisan of Artaxerxes' 7th year is, by both systems, the Nisan of 458 B.C.
Now, clearly 70 prophetic "weeks" (490 years) after Nisan 458 B.C. brings us to Nisan, A.D. 33 (490 - 458 + 1 = 33), the month and year of Christ's death and resurrection, as indicated in the Great Pyramid.
One more important matter should be considered. In Daniel verse 27 we are informed that in the middle of the 70th "week," sacrifice and oblation would cease. Christ offered Himself for sacrifice and was accepted (His baptism) half a "week" (3 1/2 years) before the end of Daniel's 70 "weeks," or, in other words, at the end of 69 1/2 prophetic "weeks" or 486 1/2 actual years (486 1/2 - 457 3/4 = 28 3/4 A.D. = Autumn A.D. 29.
Thus in the midst of the 70th "week," He (Christ) caused sacrifice and oblation to cease (in God's sight), precisely as foretold five centuries before. This, too, is in full harmony with the statement in verse 26 that after the 7 weeks and 62 weeks, or after the 69 weeks, (during the 70th week), Messiah would be "cut off, but not for himself."
The sacrifice of Jesus, the Messiah, began when He was 30 years old and was completely consummated when He was 33 1/2 years old, thereby ending the 70th week of Daniel. All this, revealed in the Christ Triangle, shows Bible Chronology and Pyramid Chronology to be harmonious.
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